The first wall was made of brick and sits on a 2 meter foundation of stone. It stood at a height of around 8 or 9 meters, with a width of 2.2 meters. About 50-60 meters distance from each other, towers built for defensive purposes rise 2-3 meters above the wall. The remains of the first wall were then replaced by a new second wall in during the 4th century. The construction of this second wall utilized an ancient Roman building technique called “opus mixtum”, with 4 rows alternating between brick and stone. The new walls follow the form of the original, with the addition of stairs which enhance the thickness of the walls. In some places there were also added side exits called posterns.
During the reign of Emperor Justinian (527-566), construction of the existing wall was set in motion. This wall was surrounded with yet another barrier with a width of 1.8 meters. New triangular towers were placed between the existing ones. These triangular towers were located near the three main pentagonal entrances. Around this was built a third wall 2 meters thick with a distance of 20m from the main rampart.
Part of this wall, which was situated on the eastern border of the ancient city, was discovered under Alexander Dondukov Boulevard. They were found under the Presidential office and the Ministry building. Some reconstruction work was carried out in 1997-1999 in order to allow visitors to see the fragments of the past that are buried underneath the capital.